Here you will find the answers to all the questions regarding Mesenchymal stem cells.
What are Mesenchymal stem cells?
Mesenchymal stem cells are the derived from human cord tissues. These are early passage multipotent progenitor cells that have the capacity to support hematopoiesis and differentiation into multiple lineage such as adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic, myogenic and cardiomyogenic as well.
How are the Mesenchymal Stem Cells advantageous?
There are many reasons why Mesenchymal stem cells are considered very reasonable and effective. The first and the foremost advantage is the absence of all the ethical issues. The avoidance of the problems that are a part of embryonic stem cell research, it becomes a reliable choice. Along with that, the immune-privileged nature of the MSCs makes them reliable for the allogeneic transplantation. The use of MSCs reduces the chances of complications and the rejection after the transplantation.
Along with all that, the advanced use of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells has made human tissue regeneration much easier. Plus, these stem cells become a great help in the regeneration of the cartilage, tendons, meniscus, bone fractures and others. This all happens due to the ability of the MSCs to hone to the damage sites, regulate the immune response and affect the microenvironment.
Combined together, these traits enhance the therapeutic value of the Mesenchymal stem cells. The population of the cells allows treating a wide range of degenerative and acute diseases.
Some of the exceptional benefits of these cells are given below:
- Well researched
With more than 36,000 scientific articles, the Mesenchymal stem cells have enough published reports to understand the population.
- No ethical issues
Derived from the adult bone marrow and adipose tissue, these stem cells don’t present the ethical issues that are associated with embryonic stem cells.
- Diverse range of application
These stem cells have the capacity to provide a wide variety of the cell types in the laboratory. Both, an intra as well as an extra mesenchymal lineage, the stem cells provide the cells of bone, skin, fat, nerve, cartilage, muscle, marrow stroma, ligaments, tendons and more.
- Easy growth
With the help of researches, there are proper protocols available to follow in order to isolate, expand or differentiate the growth of the Mesenchymal stem cells.
- High propagation periods
Mesenchymal stem cells are easy to grow and propagate for long periods in culture. They don’t lose their differentiation potential, even during the extended periods.
- Regulator synthesis
The ability of Mesenchymal stem cells to synthesize and secrete different varieties of macromolecules helps here. These macromolecules work as regulators of the bone-resorbing cells and hematopoietic cells as well.
- No immunological concerns
Being free from the co-stimulatory molecules of the B7 family, the mesenchymal stem cells don’t present the threat of initiating an immune response. Hence, the preparations of MSC across MHC barriers become free from immunological rejections. The procedure doesn’t require the need for the immunosuppression. This is why Mesenchymal stem cells become a universal source of stem cells.
How are Mesenchymal stem cells derived from the Umbilical cord work?
In order to ensure the acceptance, the maternal blood and cord blood is tested. The negative test result for the HIV I&II, HCV, syphilis IgG/IgM antibodies, CMV IgG/IgM and Hepatitis B surface antigen. Also, the cells are ensured free of any bacterial as well as fungal contamination.
The advantage of using these cells helps in regenerating human tissues, along with the meniscus, tendons, bone fractures and others.
What are the exceptional properties of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal stem cells?
For the therapeutic usage, the umbilical cord tissue provides easy access to the stem cells. These sources are noncontroversial, which makes them highly approachable.
Here, in our laboratories, we compared the Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells with the adult sources. There are some exceptional properties that make the former cells much more effective.
- The lack of immune properties in the umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells.
- The lack of class II HLA in umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells enhances the acceptance of transplanted cells. The adult stem cells present these antigens.
- The ability to provide a wide range of growth factors is much higher in umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells than adult mesenchymal stem cells.
How are the young and old mesenchymal stem cells different from each other?
Researchers have proven the difference between the young and the old MSCs. These differences appear in morphology, proliferation, gene expression, cell surface antigen phenotype and immunomodulatory ability.
The expansion of the numbers of young mesenchymal stem cells into advanced passage presents an enlarged and flattened morphology. The display of this characteristic also provides different gene expression profiles.
On the other hand, the human mesenchymal stem cells show an insufficient telomerase activity. This doesn’t help to overcome the telomere shortening that is caused by the end-replication and oxidative stress. These problems are associated with higher rates of culture, which become a big concern in the old mesenchymal stem cells.
How is the Mesenchymal stem cell culture optimized for therapeutic use?
It takes about two to three weeks of time for the Mesenchymal stem cells to rapidly proliferate. During this time, the cells achieve thousands of folds with the expansion. But, it is important to ensure that the expansion is appropriate, or it can reduce the quality of the MSCs. As the cells grow and expand, the therapeutic properties start diminishing. For instance, the cardio protective effect of these cells reduces as the cell grows from passage 1 to passage 3 mesenchymal stem cells.
In our laboratories, we focus on determining the population doubling time of the clinical cell culture. This becomes the most reliable parameter to attain standard results. The population doubling time is the time two-fold increase in the cells. In the culture, the population doubling time directly affects the loss of potency, replicative senescence, and genomic instability.
To maintain the levels and higher activity levels of the culture, we make sure that our laboratories maintain passage 1 culture along with the restriction on doubling of 5-10 times.
Hence, the mesenchymal stem cells are extracted from cord tissues. As naïve cells, these cells provide much greater therapeutic results than adult cells. The cells derived from the cord tissue showcase shorter doubling time and higher vitro capacity for expansion. This shows that mesenchymal stem cells are more effective in the expansion than adult mesenchymal stem cells.
So, now you have all the information on the old and the new mesenchymal stem cells. You know that the mesenchymal cells have the capacity to generate larger cell mass in less time than the adult cells.
For more information, feel free to contact us.